Diagnostic de la filiere laitiere bovine a destination d'Addis-Abeba. Bilan sur les componsantes periurbaine et urbaine
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In the Ethiopian context of economic transition period and high urban population growth (3,8 percent ), the problem of supply of dairy products to Addis-Ababa is addressed through research results produced by CIRAD-EMVT and its partners in Ethiopia (ILCA, ILCI, NARS). The paper discusses the dairy commodity system with an overall description and analysis of the production, distribution and consumption features in the Addis-Ababa milkshed and with a particular focus on peri-urban and intra-urban areas. Four sub-systems in the dairy commodity systems aimed at supplying Addis-Ababa are described: - the traditional system supplying butter used in Ethiopian cooking from rural areas; - the traditional system supplying cosmetic butter and curdled products (ayib); the modern sector assembling milk from state farms, peri-urban and urban private producers, and providing pasteurized milk and standardized western-type dairy products through both private and public networks of operators; - the traditional urban and peri-urban sector of small producers delivering raw milk to households in their neighbourhood. About 23 000 dairy cows were enumerated in the urban and peri-urban area of Addis-Ababa. Most of them are crossbred or zebu type and they are reared through a diversity of rural and urban farming systems including urban zero-grazing systems and mixed farming systems with association of vegetable crops. Results from research indicate that 35 000 metric tons of milk from which 30 000 are processed or traded to the Addis-Ababa market through retailers and processors from the public and private system. The public system (DDE=Dairy Development Enterprise) provides processed milk out of 1 570 metric tons of milk from its own rural and peri-urban production, added to 3 170 tons from private - mainly peri-urban - processors. The milk assembled from urban and peri-urban private farms and processed by the private sector amounts to about 25 000 tons. About 4 360 tons are sold as pasteurized or raw milk, while 2 950 tons are sold as processed products. In this context, changes and innovations in the market for dairy, services and inputs are as important to take into account as traditional, more stable features. The Addis-Ababa milkshed can serve as a contemporary monitoring system of changes in urbanization and consumption features, spatial organization, productivity gain opportunities, institutionalization of the sector, enabling capacity of laws and cultural rules. This monitoring system is necessary for a relevant analysis of city-countryside relationships in a dual challenge of food security and economic Development for the operators in the commodity system.
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