Consuming iron biofortified beans increases iron status in Rwandan women after 128 days in a randomized controlled feeding Trial 1–3
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Haas, Jere D.; Luna, Sarah V.; Lung’aho, Mercy G.; Wenger, Michael J.; Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Beebe, Stephen; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Egli, Ines M.. 2016. Consuming iron biofortified beans increases iron status in Rwandan women after 128 days in a randomized controlled feeding Trial 1–3 . The Journal of Nutrition 146(8): 1586-1592.
Permanent link to cite or share this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10568/76243
Background: Food-based strategies to reduce nutritional iron deficiency have not been universally successful. Biofortification has the potential to become a sustainable, inexpensive, and effective solution. Objective: This randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of iron-biofortified beans (Fe-Beans) to improve iron status in Rwandan women. Methods: A total of 195 women (aged 18–27 y) with serum ferritin <20 mg/L were randomly assigned to receive either Fe-Beans, with 86 mg Fe/kg, or standard unfortified beans (Control-Beans), with 50 mg Fe/kg, 2 times/d for 128 d in Huye, Rwanda. Iron status was assessed by hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and body iron (BI); inflammation was assessed by serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum a1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Anthropometric measurements were performed at baseline and at end line. Random weekly serial sampling was used to collect blood during the middle 8wk of the feeding trial. Mixed-effects regression analysis with repeated measurements was used to evaluate the effect of Fe-Beans compared with Control-Beans on iron biomarkers throughout the course of the study. Results: At baseline, 86% of subjects were iron-deficient (serum ferritin <15 mg/L) and 37% were anemic (hemoglobin <120 g/L). Both groups consumed an average of 336 g wet beans/d. The Fe-Beans group consumed 14.5 6 1.6 mg Fe/d from biofortified beans, whereas the Control-Beans group consumed 8.6 6 0.8 mg Fe/d from standard beans (P < 0.05). Repeated-measures analyses showed significant time-by-treatment interactions for hemoglobin, log serum ferritin, and BI (P < 0.05). The Fe-Beans group had significantly greater increases in hemoglobin (3.8 g/L), log serum ferritin (0.1 log mg/L), and BI (0.5 mg/kg) than did controls after 128 d. For every 1 g Fe consumed from beans over the 128 study days, there was a significant 4.2-g/L increase in hemoglobin (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The consumption of iron-biofortified beans significantly improved iron status in Rwandan women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01594359. J Nutr doi: 10.3945/jn.115.224741.