Methodologies to assess income, consumption, and the impacts of livestock on household food security.
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Sheikh, D. 2000. Methodologies to assess income, consumption, and the impacts of livestock on household food security. PhD thesis. University of Missouri
Permanent link to cite or share this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10568/79636
External link to download this item: http://www.researchkenya.or.ke/thesis/7841/methodologies-to-assess-income,-consumption,-and-the-impacts-of-livestock-on-household-food-security
Understanding the income-earning strategies, consumption behavior and coping mechanisms developed by farm households when shock events such as droughts occur, is central to programs focused on rural livelihoods in the tropics. The impact of programs in the areas of policy and technology may be more effective with this understanding. Two regions of Kenya in East Africa, the coast and Machakos, are studied between 1994 and 1999 to test methods that evaluate the food security and coping strategies of rural households. Two types of evaluation are developed. The first focuses on measuring the vulnerability of communities and individuals. The second is a method to identify variables that contribute to consumption and consumption smoothing. The former is accomplished through the development of a food security index that measures the community's coping strategies in times of shock. Shock events related to climate in the 1990s and community coping strategies are identified and ranked at by each group. This ranking is used to measure the individual household's food security index. Monetary and non-monetary coping strategies are identified. Non-monetary, as well as short and longterm coping strategies are characteristic of Machakos, where Kimutwa is the least food secure. The variables that contribute to consumption behavior, and consumption smoothing, are evaluated through a variant of the permanent income hypothesis that incorporates risky income earning. This model includes livestock assets as a mechanism to approximate non- monetary savings not captured by the transitory income. Consumption smoothing takes place when the coefficients of the permanent income are larger than transitory income. Livestock assets are significant in explaining consumption behavior in all four clusters. Large ruminants are significant in Kwale and Kimutwa for both shock and non-shock years. Small ruminants in Kwale and Kimutwa are significant in non-shock years, while in Kilifi during shock years. The permanent income hypothesis model did not explain the consumption behavior for Machakos during shock seasons. These sites use more non-monetary strategies, which are not captured in the permanent and transitory incomes. The coping strategies and fsi analysis show that both sites at Machakos are more food insecure and hence vulnerable to climatic stress. Proxies to capture nonmonetary strategies are proposed.